Best Practices in Configuration Management for Railway Infrastructure Projects


What is Configuration Management? 

The primary objectives of configuration management are to establish and maintain consistency, control, and traceability of various elements within a system or project throughout its lifecycle. Configuration management aims to ensure that the system's components, documentation, and processes remain accurate, up-to-date, and well-coordinated, enabling effective development, operation, maintenance, and evolution of a system. 

Why is Configuration Management Crucial to Project Success? 

Safety and Reliability: Safety is of paramount importance within railway systems. Configuration Management, when used with a Systems Engineering framework, ensures that all changes are assessed in terms of their safety impact and the effect on other configuration items/systems. Accurate configuration data allows for effective risk assessment and hazard identification, reducing the risk of accidents and ensuring reliable and safe operations. 

Compliance with Regulatory Standards: The railway industry is subject to strict regulations and standards to ensure public safety and operational efficiency. Configuration management provides a systematic approach to comply with industry regulations, track changes, and verify that all elements meet the applicable requirements. Configuration management enables the compliance to standards like ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 and ISO 10007. 

Change Management: Configuration management enables the establishment of baselines. Effective change control ensures that all modifications to established baselines are accurately documented, tested, and approved before implementation. This reduces the risk of introducing errors or inconsistencies that could impact system performance. 

Traceability and Accountability: Configuration management ensures comprehensive records of all changes, decisions, and versions throughout a railway project's lifecycle. This traceability ensures accountabilities for all stakeholders involved, aids in problem-solving, and facilitates efficient root cause analysis in case of incidents or failures. 

Maintenance and Asset Management: Configuration management aids in efficient maintenance practices by providing insights into component relationships, versions, and maintenance requirements. This allows for proactive maintenance planning, timely replacements, and improved asset management, extending the lifespan of railway infrastructure. 

Enhanced Collaboration: Configurations contain vital data that multiple teams and stakeholders rely on during a railway project's lifecycle. A well-managed configuration ensures that all teams have access to consistent, up-to-date information, promoting better communication and collaboration across different project phases and organisations.  Project Control and Risk Mitigation: Configuration management offers a systematic approach to project control by defining baselines and tracking changes. This reduces the risk of unforeseen issues from Configuration Status Accounting activities that could delay project timelines or lead to costly rework. 

Long-Term Sustainability: Configuration management contributes to the long-term sustainability of railway systems by facilitating accurate documentation, maintenance, and updates. Accurately managed configurations ensure that assets remain in compliance with standards and continue to meet operational needs over time. 

Why is Configuration Management Often Underestimated? 

Complexity and Scale: Railway infrastructure projects are often massive undertakings involving numerous interconnected systems, components, and stakeholders. Managing configurations for such complex projects can be challenging, and some organisations may underestimate the importance of robust configuration management practices. 

Lack of Awareness: Configuration management may not always receive the attention it deserves due to a lack of awareness about its significance. Some project stakeholders, including executives and decision-makers, might not fully understand the benefits of standardised configuration management and its impact on project success. 

Cost and Time Constraints: Implementing comprehensive configuration management practices requires time, effort, and investment. In fast-paced railway projects, organisations might prioritise other aspects, such as meeting tight schedules and budget constraints, leading to the de-prioritisation of configuration management efforts. 

Focus on Physical Infrastructure: The railway industry often focuses on the construction and physical aspects of infrastructure, such as tracks, bridges, and stations. While these elements are crucial, the management of configuration data and documentation related to these assets may not receive the same level of attention. 

Limited Resources and Expertise: Since formal configuration management was predominantly applied in the aerospace and defence industries, some railway organisations may still lack the necessary resources, including skilled personnel and advanced tools, to implement effective configuration management practices.  

Lack of Regulatory Emphasis: While national regulatory bodies often outline requirements for railway safety and quality standards, they might not explicitly emphasise the need for comprehensive configuration management. As a result, some organisations may not prioritise configuration management in their projects. 

Siloed Workflows: In large organisations or complex projects, different teams might work in silos due to workflows not being set up for collaboration, leading to fragmented data management and poor communication. This can hinder the establishment of a unified configuration management approach across the entire project. 

Configuration Management Standards 

Recent projects like the Cross River Rail project in Brisbane mandated the use of EIA-649-C in addition to well-known standards like ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 and ISO 10007. The EIA-649-C Configuration Management Standard offers a structured framework for effective configuration management practices. Published by the Electronic Industries Association (EIA), it guides industries in maintaining consistency, control, and traceability of systems and projects throughout their lifecycles. Emphasising documentation, change control, and collaboration, the standard outlines key concepts, processes, and terminology. It covers configuration identification, change management, control, status accounting, and audits. Adherence to EIA-649-C enhances communication, reduces risks, and ensures reliable system development and maintenance in a rapidly evolving technological landscape. 

Configuration Management Process 

The configuration management process is a systematic and disciplined approach to identifying, documenting, controlling, and verifying the configuration of products, systems, or projects throughout their lifecycle. EIA-649-C provides guidelines for the following key aspects of the configuration management process: 

Configuration Management Planning 

Configuration management planning involves creating a comprehensive plan that outlines how configuration management will be executed throughout the system's lifecycle. It defines roles, responsibilities, processes, tools, and resources required for effective configuration management. 

Configuration Identification 

This process involves defining and documenting the various configuration items that make up a system, product, or project into a product breakdown structure (PBS). It establishes a clear and consistent method for naming, labelling, and identifying these items. Configuration identification ensures that all stakeholders have a common understanding of what constitutes the system's components. 

Configuration Change Management and Control 

Change management focuses on controlling proposed changes to the configuration of a system. This process includes evaluating change requests, analysing their impacts, making decisions regarding their implementation, and documenting the approved changes. It ensures that changes are well-understood, properly assessed, and implemented in a controlled manner. Configuration control is about establishing processes and mechanisms to manage changes systematically. It includes maintaining documentation of the current approved configurations, ensuring that only authorised changes are made, and preventing unauthorised or undocumented changes from occurring. 

Configuration Status Accounting 

Configuration status accounting involves tracking and documenting the current status of configuration items and their changes. This process enables traceability and helps, helping stakeholders understand the history and current state of each configuration item. 

Configuration Verification and Audit 

Regular verification and audits are crucial to ensure that railway infrastructure elements adhere to specified requirements and configuration baselines. Configuration verification involves checking that the as-built or as-delivered configuration matches the specified requirements. Configuration audits are formal reviews conducted to ensure that the configuration documentation accurately represents the physical components and their relationships. 

Configuration Baselines 

Configuration baselines refer to well-defined points in the lifecycle of a project or system where the configuration of items is established and controlled. These baselines serve as reference points for managing changes and ensuring consistency. Typical baselines include: 

Functional Baseline: The Functional Baseline represents the initial configuration that captures the functional and performance requirements of the system or project. It defines the scope and objectives, providing a foundation for subsequent development and design activities. 

Allocated Baseline: The Allocated Baseline extends the Functional Baseline by detailing how the system's requirements are allocated to various components, subsystems, or elements. It defines the architecture and components necessary to meet the specified functions and performance. 

Design Baseline: The design baseline includes detailed information such as drawings, specifications, schematics, and other technical documentation that describe how the system's components are intended to be structured, interconnected, and function. It embodies the design decisions and considerations made during the development process. 

Product Baseline: The Product Baseline captures the detailed design and manufacturing specifications of the system's components. It includes technical documentation, drawings, and other information necessary for construction and testing. 

Operational Baseline: The Operational Baseline represents the system configuration as it is deployed and used in its operational environment. It includes any changes or modifications made after the initial construction. 

Leveraging Configuration Management Tools 

Configuration management databases (CMDB) are powerful tools that enable the storage and management of configuration item (CI) data. They facilitate easy access to configuration information, version control, and impact analysis. Railway infrastructure projects can leverage CMDBs to maintain an up-to-date and accurate repository of project elements, ensuring efficient change control and status accounting. 

Version Control Systems (VCS) are widely used in software development, but they also find application in railway infrastructure projects. VCS allows for the systematic tracking of changes made to project documentation, ensuring that project teams work with the latest versions of critical documents. This reduces the risk of using outdated information and improves collaboration among team members. 

Requirements Management Tools are instrumental in capturing, organising, and tracking project requirements. In railway infrastructure projects, requirements play a pivotal role in establishing the system definition for the configuration management process. These tools enable traceability of requirements to corresponding configurations, ensuring that each element is designed, built, and verified to meet its intended purpose. Moreover, requirements management tools facilitate the tracking of changes in project requirements, allowing for accurate change control procedures and impact analysis on configurations. 

Collaborative platforms facilitate real-time communication and coordination among team members working on different aspects of the railway infrastructure project. These platforms, although to configuration management tools per se, promote configuration management, streamline workflows, enhance transparency, and centralise project-related information. Collaboration tools can also serve as a repository for configuration-related documentation, making it accessible to all stakeholders. Effective collaboration improves decision-making, reduces miscommunication, and ensures that configuration management activities are well-coordinated and documented. 

The Link Between Configuration Management, Requirements Management and System Engineering 

Requirements Management (RM) involves capturing and defining the project's requirements, goals, and constraints. These requirements are essential in establishing the baseline for the configuration management process. By accurately linking requirements to specific configurations, the project team can ensure that each element is designed, built, and verified to meet its intended purpose throughout the project life-cycle. 

Configuration Management provides the framework for managing changes to project artifacts. When integrated with Requirements Management, it ensures that changes to requirements are well-documented, traceable, and approved, maintaining the integrity of the project's scope and objectives. Any change to the project requirements should follow appropriate change control procedures to assess the impact on the overall project. Ongoing configuration status accounting provides continuous visibility of the current status of the project against the initial requirements, facilitating informed decision-making and control of changes. 

Systems Engineering (SE) focuses on designing, integrating, and managing complex systems while considering their overall requirements, functions, and interactions. Configuration Management, on the other hand, ensures the accurate control and documentation of system components, changes, and versions. The synergy between Configuration Management and Systems Engineering lies in their shared objectives: both disciplines aim to enhance system performance, reliability, and maintainability. SE provides the context for CM, guiding decisions about what to manage and why, while CM facilitates SE by enforcing controlled and traceable changes, preventing configuration drift, and maintaining accurate documentation. 

The combination of CM, RM and SE creates an audit trail that demonstrates compliance with requirements and regulatory standards. This traceable history of changes supports verification and validation processes which is vital in regulated industries such as the railway industry. 


Effective configuration management is crucial for successful railway infrastructure projects. By utilising industry standards such as EIA-649-C and implementing best practices, project teams can minimise risk, improve communication, deliver high-quality systems, and improve whole of life outputs. It is important to tailor the configuration management process to suit the size, scope, and criticality of the project while adhering to the fundamental principles and guidelines outlined in the standard. Moreover, leveraging configuration management tools enhances efficiency, traceability, and collaboration within the project team. The intrinsic link between configuration management, requirements management and systems engineering ensure that projects align with stakeholder requirements, comply with industry standards and pave the way for successful project outcomes and long-term infrastructure sustainability. 

Stefan Myburgh
Associate Director - Systems Engineering
Network Rail Consulting